How To Compile Python Program To Exetuable File

How to compile a Python program into an executable file? This article will tell you the steps about how to convert a python program (.py files) to an executable file on both Windows, Linux, macOS operating systems.

1. Compile python program to windows .exe file steps.

  1. Using Pycharm to install pyinstaller.
  2. You can also install the pyinstaller library with the command pip install pyinstaller.
    $ pip install pyinstaller
    Collecting pyinstaller
      Downloading pyinstaller-4.2.tar.gz (3.6 MB)
         |████████████████████████████████| 3.6 MB 26 kB/s 
      Installing build dependencies ... done
      Getting requirements to build wheel ... done
        Preparing wheel metadata ... done
    Collecting importlib-metadata
      Downloading importlib_metadata-3.8.0-py3-none-any.whl (13 kB)
    Collecting pyinstaller-hooks-contrib>=2020.6
      Downloading pyinstaller_hooks_contrib-2021.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl (181 kB)
         |████████████████████████████████| 181 kB 22 kB/s 
    Collecting macholib>=1.8
      Downloading macholib-1.14-py2.py3-none-any.whl (37 kB)
    Requirement already satisfied: setuptools in /Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.7/lib/python3.7/site-packages (from pyinstaller) (40.8.0)
    Collecting altgraph
      Downloading altgraph-0.17-py2.py3-none-any.whl (21 kB)
    Collecting zipp>=0.5
      Downloading zipp-3.4.1-py3-none-any.whl (5.2 kB)
    Requirement already satisfied: typing-extensions>=3.6.4 in /Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.7/lib/python3.7/site-packages (from importlib-metadata->pyinstaller) (3.7.4.3)
    Building wheels for collected packages: pyinstaller
      Building wheel for pyinstaller (PEP 517) ... done
      Created wheel for pyinstaller: filename=pyinstaller-4.2-py3-none-any.whl size=2413076 sha256=7a1f646083dbb948c03111bce2271a3766ea746e8fbebf351e4593ff66ae55bb
      Stored in directory: /Users/songzhao/Library/Caches/pip/wheels/85/03/fe/8402ecc0126d8b6156708a4d0b638f2bb6b082d10da4fde9f8
    Successfully built pyinstaller
    Installing collected packages: zipp, altgraph, pyinstaller-hooks-contrib, macholib, importlib-metadata, pyinstaller
    Successfully installed altgraph-0.17 importlib-metadata-3.8.0 macholib-1.14 pyinstaller-4.2 pyinstaller-hooks-contrib-2021.1 zipp-3.4.1
  3. Find the installation directory of pyinstaller.
    $ pip show pyinstaller
    Name: pyinstaller
    Version: 4.2
    Summary: PyInstaller bundles a Python application and all its dependencies into a single package.
    Home-page: http://www.pyinstaller.org/
    Author: Hartmut Goebel, Giovanni Bajo, David Vierra, David Cortesi, Martin Zibricky
    Author-email: None
    License: GPLv2-or-later with a special exception which allows to use PyInstaller to build and distribute non-free programs (including commercial ones)
    Location: /Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.7/lib/python3.7/site-packages
    Requires: importlib-metadata, setuptools, pyinstaller-hooks-contrib, macholib, altgraph
    Required-by:
  4. Open a terminal and go to your python script file saved folder then run the command pyinstaller -F *.py.
    $ pyinstaller -F *.py
    70 INFO: PyInstaller: 4.2
    71 INFO: Python: 3.7.3
    87 INFO: Platform: Darwin-19.6.0-x86_64-i386-64bit
    88 INFO: wrote /Users/songzhao/Documents/WorkSpace/dev2qa.com-example-code/PythonExampleProject/com/dev2qa/example/lxml/ParseHtml.spec
    98 INFO: UPX is not available.
    101 INFO: Extending PYTHONPATH with paths
    ['/Users/songzhao/Documents/WorkSpace/dev2qa.com-example-code/PythonExampleProject',
     '/Users/songzhao/Documents/WorkSpace/dev2qa.com-example-code/PythonExampleProject',
     '/Users/songzhao/Documents/WorkSpace/dev2qa.com-example-code/PythonExampleProject/com/dev2qa/example/lxml']
    121 INFO: checking Analysis
    121 INFO: Building Analysis because Analysis-00.toc is non existent
    121 INFO: Initializing module dependency graph...
    125 INFO: Caching module graph hooks...
    134 WARNING: Several hooks defined for module 'win32ctypes.core'. Please take care they do not conflict.
    137 INFO: Analyzing base_library.zip ...
    4597 INFO: Caching module dependency graph...
    4733 INFO: running Analysis Analysis-00.toc
    4744 INFO: Analyzing /Users/songzhao/Documents/WorkSpace/dev2qa.com-example-code/PythonExampleProject/com/dev2qa/example/lxml/ParseHtml.py
    5013 INFO: Processing pre-safe import module hook urllib3.packages.six.moves from '/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.7/lib/python3.7/site-packages/PyInstaller/hooks/pre_safe_import_module/hook-urllib3.packages.six.moves.py'.
    6974 INFO: Processing pre-safe import module hook six.moves from '/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.7/lib/python3.7/site-packages/PyInstaller/hooks/pre_safe_import_module/hook-six.moves.py'.
    8701 INFO: Analyzing /Users/songzhao/Documents/WorkSpace/dev2qa.com-example-code/PythonExampleProject/com/dev2qa/example/lxml/__init__.py
    8702 INFO: Processing module hooks...
    8702 INFO: Loading module hook 'hook-cryptography.py' from '/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.7/lib/python3.7/site-packages/_pyinstaller_hooks_contrib/hooks/stdhooks'...
    9033 INFO: Loading module hook 'hook-certifi.py' from '/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.7/lib/python3.7/site-packages/_pyinstaller_hooks_contrib/hooks/stdhooks'...
    9040 INFO: Loading module hook 'hook-lxml.py' from '/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.7/lib/python3.7/site-packages/_pyinstaller_hooks_contrib/hooks/stdhooks'...
    9573 INFO: Loading module hook 'hook-lxml.etree.py' from '/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.7/lib/python3.7/site-packages/_pyinstaller_hooks_contrib/hooks/stdhooks'...
    9575 INFO: Loading module hook 'hook-encodings.py' from '/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.7/lib/python3.7/site-packages/PyInstaller/hooks'...
    9661 INFO: Loading module hook 'hook-pickle.py' from '/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.7/lib/python3.7/site-packages/PyInstaller/hooks'...
    9664 INFO: Excluding import of argparse from module pickle
    9665 INFO: Loading module hook 'hook-heapq.py' from '/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.7/lib/python3.7/site-packages/PyInstaller/hooks'...
    9667 INFO: Excluding import of doctest from module heapq
    9667 INFO: Loading module hook 'hook-difflib.py' from '/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.7/lib/python3.7/site-packages/PyInstaller/hooks'...
    9669 INFO: Excluding import of doctest from module difflib
    9669 INFO: Loading module hook 'hook-xml.py' from '/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.7/lib/python3.7/site-packages/PyInstaller/hooks'...
    9761 INFO: Loading module hook 'hook-lxml.objectify.py' from '/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.7/lib/python3.7/site-packages/_pyinstaller_hooks_contrib/hooks/stdhooks'...
    9762 INFO: Loading module hook 'hook-lxml.isoschematron.py' from '/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.7/lib/python3.7/site-packages/_pyinstaller_hooks_contrib/hooks/stdhooks'...
    9808 INFO: Looking for ctypes DLLs
    9808 INFO: Analyzing run-time hooks ...
    9814 INFO: Including run-time hook '/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.7/lib/python3.7/site-packages/_pyinstaller_hooks_contrib/hooks/rthooks/pyi_rth_certifi.py'
    9828 INFO: Looking for dynamic libraries
    10082 INFO: Looking for eggs
    10082 INFO: Using Python library /Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.7/Python
    10088 INFO: Warnings written to /Users/songzhao/Documents/WorkSpace/dev2qa.com-example-code/PythonExampleProject/com/dev2qa/example/lxml/build/ParseHtml/warn-ParseHtml.txt
    10152 INFO: Graph cross-reference written to /Users/songzhao/Documents/WorkSpace/dev2qa.com-example-code/PythonExampleProject/com/dev2qa/example/lxml/build/ParseHtml/xref-ParseHtml.html
    10197 INFO: checking PYZ
    10197 INFO: Building PYZ because PYZ-00.toc is non existent
    10197 INFO: Building PYZ (ZlibArchive) /Users/songzhao/Documents/WorkSpace/dev2qa.com-example-code/PythonExampleProject/com/dev2qa/example/lxml/build/ParseHtml/PYZ-00.pyz
    11092 INFO: Building PYZ (ZlibArchive) /Users/songzhao/Documents/WorkSpace/dev2qa.com-example-code/PythonExampleProject/com/dev2qa/example/lxml/build/ParseHtml/PYZ-00.pyz completed successfully.
    11111 INFO: checking PKG
    11112 INFO: Building PKG because PKG-00.toc is non existent
    11112 INFO: Building PKG (CArchive) PKG-00.pkg
    17846 INFO: Building PKG (CArchive) PKG-00.pkg completed successfully.
    17852 INFO: Bootloader /Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.7/lib/python3.7/site-packages/PyInstaller/bootloader/Darwin-64bit/run
    17852 INFO: checking EXE
    17852 INFO: Building EXE because EXE-00.toc is non existent
    17852 INFO: Building EXE from EXE-00.toc
    17852 INFO: Appending archive to EXE /Users/songzhao/Documents/WorkSpace/dev2qa.com-example-code/PythonExampleProject/com/dev2qa/example/lxml/dist/ParseHtml
    17918 INFO: Fixing EXE for code signing /Users/songzhao/Documents/WorkSpace/dev2qa.com-example-code/PythonExampleProject/com/dev2qa/example/lxml/dist/ParseHtml
    17922 INFO: Building EXE from EXE-00.toc completed successfully.
    (base) bogon:lxml songzhao$ pwd
    /Users/songzhao/Documents/WorkSpace/dev2qa.com-example-code/PythonExampleProject/com/dev2qa/example/lxml
  5. Then it will create the executable file in the current folder’s dist subfolder.
    $ tree ./
    ./
    ├── ParseHtml.py
    ├── ParseHtml.spec
    ├── __init__.py
    ├── __pycache__
    │   └── ParseHtml.cpython-37.pyc
    ├── build
    │   └── ParseHtml
    │       ├── Analysis-00.toc
    │       ├── EXE-00.toc
    │       ├── PKG-00.pkg
    │       ├── PKG-00.toc
    │       ├── PYZ-00.pyz
    │       ├── PYZ-00.toc
    │       ├── base_library.zip
    │       ├── warn-ParseHtml.txt
    │       └── xref-ParseHtml.html
    └── dist
        └── ParseHtml
    
  6. Go to the dist folder, if your OS is macOS or Linux, you will find a file with executable rights for all users.
    $ cd dist
    $ ls -l
    
    -rwxr-xr-x  1 songzhao  staff  12361616 Mar 27 22:54 ParseHtml
  7. If your OS is Windows, the executable file is a file with the .exe file extension.
  8. Now you can execute the python program by input the executable file name in a terminal.
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